Africa, Mali, Malinke, 20th century         
               Initiation mask
Context: Malinke is the term used for Islamic Bamana speakers in Mali. Although
Moslem, the Malinke have retained traditional initiation societies responsible for
training boys to fulfill their adult roles. Masking performances and other
techniques are used to instill self-awareness, discipline, and sacred knowledge in
young men. Aluminum, which first became available with the advent of airplanes,
enriches the mask's surface with cut and stamped geometric shapes